vendredi 26 juin 2020

Onco Actu du 26 juin 2020

BIOLOGIE
Discovery of aggressive cancer cell types by Vanderbilt researchers made possible with machine learning techniques [Vanderbilt] 
“We’re able to find the needles in the haystack without searching the entire haystack. This technology lets us devote our attention to better understanding the most dangerous cancer cells and to get closer to ultimately curing brain cancer.”

A Metabolic Enzyme Drives Lymphoma and Is a Potential Drug Target [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center] 
“We find that increased activity of a normal metabolic enzyme, called SHMT2, is sufficient to transform normal B cells into B cell lymphomas,” says Sara Parsa. The paper was published in the journal Nature Cancer.

BIOLOGIE - TECHNOS, MODÈLES
CRISPR gene editing in human embryos wreaks chromosomal mayhem [Nature] 
Three studies showing large DNA deletions and reshuffling heighten safety concerns about heritable genome editing.

New DNA Sequencing technique may help unravel genetic diversity of cancer tumors [Keck School of Medicine] 
Using a microfluidic-droplet-based single cell sequencing method, USC researchers have simultaneously sequenced the genomes of close to 1,500 single cells, revealing genetic diversity previously hidden in a well-studied melanoma cell line.

ÉTIOLOGIE - ENVIRONNEMENT
Bayer announces agreements to resolve major legacy Monsanto litigation [Bayer] 
Company will make a total payment of $10.1 billion to $10.9 billion (EUR 9.1 billion to EUR 9.8 billion) to resolve current and address potential future Roundup™ litigation.

ÉTIOLOGIE - GÉNOME
Inherited mutation found among Brazilians increases cancer risk [St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital] 
Genomic research helps explain why some people with a common TP53 mutation widespread in Brazil get cancer while others do not.

PRÉVENTION - ALIMENTATION
Cancer Survivors Overestimate the Quality of their Diets, Finds First Study on the Topic [George Mason University] 
Xue and colleagues analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2005-2014 on 2,361 cancer survivors and 23,114 participants who had not had cancer as a comparison group.

First results of fasting mimicking diet to support cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy [Medical Xpress] 
Does fasting help make chemotherapy more effective in breast cancer patients? Researchers led by Leiden University Medical Centre (LUMC) and Breast Cancer Research Group (BOOG) are a step closer to answering that question after completing the first randomized study. They describe their auspicious results in the scientific journal Nature Communications. 

DÉP., DIAG. & PRONO. - COL DE L’UTÉRUS
AI dual-stain approach improved accuracy, efficiency of cervical cancer screening in NIH study [NIH] 
The new approach uses artificial intelligence (AI) to automate dual-stain evaluation and has clear implications for clinical care. Findings from the study were published June 25, 2020, in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

DÉP., DIAG. & PRONO. - BIOPSIES LIQUIDES
Inivata Demonstrates Potential of ctDNA Assay for Cancer Recurrence, MRD Applications [Genome Web] 
In one study, the UK-based firm found that RaDaR detected circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in lung cancer patients up to a year before standard clinical progression occurred in most of the cases.

DÉP., DIAG. & PRONO. - POUMON
Roche improves speed and accuracy of non-small cell lung cancer diagnosis with launch of automated digital pathology algorithm [Roche] 
uPath PD-L1 (SP263) image analysis uses automated pre-computing and one-click scoring to enable quicker and accurate detection and measurement of tumour cell staining positivity.

TRAITEMENTS - PRÉ-CLINIQUE
Drug used in breast and ovarian cancer could lead to safer, more effective treatment for neuroblastoma [Institute of Cancer Research] 
“We have shown that PARP inhibitors kill neuroblastoma cells with MYCN in the laboratory. The next step is to see whether they are beneficial in children with neuroblastoma, probably in combination with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. This would be done in a clinical trial.”

IMMUNOTHÉRAPIES - BIOTECH
Out of jobs, a pair of early cell therapy executives went to Seoul, came back with a new company, $70M and a plan to leapfrog natural killer competitors [EndPoints]
They’ll start with a therapy that combines NKs with an approved antibody therapy like rituximab to improve the antibody’s effectiveness. Behind that, they’re working on CAR-NK therapy and, longer term, gene-edited CAR-NK cells.

Yale spinout re-engineers an immunotherapy GSK, others once abandoned [EndPoints] 
If it holds up, the new protein, called DR-18, could be given with other immunotherapies such as PD-1 inhibitors or CAR-T to enhance their effectiveness. 

IMMUNOTHÉRAPIES - AMM 
Regeneron and their partners at Sanofi no longer enjoy a monopoly in that particular field. Merck grabbed an OK for their top-selling PD-1 Keytruda in the same group of patients. But don’t expect Regeneron — still struggling to boost sales — to let go of their best-in-class claims.

IMMUNOTHÉRAPIES - PRÉ-CLINIQUE
These bispecifics work by binding to both a protein on a tumor and a protein on a T cell (as opposed to a conventional antibody that only binds to one protein). 

In a new study published in Science Translational Medicine, Regeneron showed that adding bispecific antibodies targeting a T cell protein called CD28 to its Sanofi-partnered PD-1 inhibitor Libtayo led to enhanced anti-tumor activity in multiple animal models as well as long-term T-cell memory against the tumors.

PHARMA - PARTENARIATS
Takeda joins microbiome-focused biotech partner's $52.6M raise as it pursues more in-house cancer work [EndPoints] 
While protected in the GI tract, these microbiome-derived peptide antigens are identifiable by their epitopes to memory T cells such that once they are spotted in the blood, they activate a rapid immune attack, according to the CEO.

PHARMA - BIOTECH
Relay Lays $200M IPO Plan to Fund Tests of Protein Motion Cancer Drugs [Xconomy] 
Sophisticated computational tools have guided Relay Therapeutics in its efforts to develop new drugs based on analysis of the movement and shape of disease-causing proteins.

Relay Therapeutics tees up $200M IPO to push a trio of oncology meds [Fierce Pharma] 
The proceeds will move Relay’s leading programs, a SHP2 inhibitor dubbed RLY-1971 and an FGFR2 inhibitor called RLY-4008, through phase 1 and into phase 2/3 confirmatory studies.

TRAITEMENTS - ÉCONOMIE
Cancer patients to benefit from new histology independent treatment [NICE]  
Entrectinib (Rozlytrek, Roche), a revolutionary treatment for a range of cancers, is the second histology independent drug to be recommended by NICE for use on the Cancer Drugs Fund (CDF).

Men in England and Wales miss out on abiraterone as first-line treatment for advanced prostate cancer [Institute of Cancer Research] 
The Institute of Cancer Research, London, has expressed disappointment at the decision by NICE not to recommend abiraterone as a first-line treatment on the NHS for newly diagnosed, advanced prostate cancer.

LUTTE CONTRE LES CANCERS - OBSERVATION
Steep rise in skin cancer since 1960s [Karolinska Institutet] 
The researchers suspect that the increase is due to a change in holiday customs with more active sunbathing and overseas trips to southern climes.

LUTTE CONTRE LES CANCERS - COVID19
Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Interactions Between Anticancer and Antiviral Drugs [ESMO] 
They emphasised that safety data are lacking, and it might not be safe to treat symptomatic COVID-19 patients with immunosuppressive anticancer drugs which increase infections.