lundi 12 août 2019

Onco Actu du 12 août 2019

  BIOLOGIE  
 

Two Genes Conspire in Endometriosis and Cancer to Help Cells Migrate [The Scientist] 
The genes promote the migration of endothelial cells outside of the uterus, a characteristic of both endometriosis and endometrial cancers, a study of mice and human tissue finds.

Makeup of bacteria in pancreatic tumours linked to survival [Cancer Research UK] 

Using patient tumour samples, scientists at The University of Texas have shown that the more diverse the bacterial population in a pancreatic tumour, the better a patient’s prognosis. The researchers, who published their work in Cell, also showed that transferring the bacteria from long-term survivors to mice with the disease could alter the types of bacteria found in the tumour.

Bacteria on tumors influences immune response and survival of patients with pancreatic cancer [MD Anderson Cancer Center] 

Study finds specific microbiome tied to long-term survival; points to fecal transplant treatment.

  ETIOLOGIE - ENVIRONNEMENT  

EPA Takes Action to Provide Accurate Risk Information to Consumers, Stop False Labeling on Products [EPA] 

EPA will no longer approve product labels claiming glyphosate is known to cause cancer – a false claim that does not meet the labeling requirements of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA).

Bayer mediator dismisses report of $8 billion Roundup settlement [Reuters] 

“Bayer has not proposed paying $8 billion to settle all the U.S. Roundup cancer claims. Such a statement is pure fiction,” Feinberg said in an email on Friday. “Compensation has not even been discussed in the global mediation discussions.”

  PRÉVENTION - CHIMIOPRÉVENTION - ASPIRINE  


Aspirin May Interact with Cells’ DNA Modifications to Alter Breast Cancer Outcomes [Wiley] 
The authors noted that the findings could help identify individuals who may benefit from aspirin after a breast cancer diagnosis due to their cells’ DNA methylation profile. Future research should consider a more comprehensive DNA methylation profile in order to better characterize women who are at risk.

  DÉP., DIAG. & PRONO. - FOIE  

Roswell Park Researchers Identify Immune Biomarker of Response in Patients With Advanced Liver Cancer [Roswell Park] 

Findings may guide decisions about which patients will benefit most from treatment with sorafenib.

  DÉP., DIAG. & PRONO. - SEIN  

Artificial intelligence could yield more accurate breast cancer diagnoses [UCLA] 

The new system, described in a study published today in JAMA Network Open, helps interpret medical images used to diagnose breast cancer that can be difficult for the human eye to classify, and it does so nearly as accurately or better as experienced pathologists.

  DÉP., DIAG. & PRONO. - BIOPSIES LIQUIDES  

TGen-Led Team Prepares to Validate 'TARDIS' Blood-Based Cancer Monitoring Method [Genome Web] 

Unlike the liquid biopsy technologies that are already being applied to guide precision oncology in advanced cancer patients, the developers of TARDIS are aiming to improve and personalize the treatment of patients with early-stage, non-metastatic disease.

  TRAITEMENTS  


Targeted Drug Erdafitinib Benefits Some Patients with Advanced Bladder Cancer [NCI] 
When erdafitinib became available, she and her colleagues developed the phase 2 trial. But the current results are not definitive, Dr. Siefker-Radtke cautioned. The phase 3 trial, she added, will provide more information about “whether patients with FGFR-altered urothelial cancer benefit more from erdafitinib or a checkpoint inhibitor.”
 

Hormonal therapy has a long-term effect in breast cancer [Karolinska Institutet] 
The results, presented in the journalJAMA Oncology, show that the treatment has a protective effect against distant metastatic cancer for both so-called Luminal A and Luminal B breast cancer subtypes, and a long-term effect for women diagnosed with Luminal A cancer.

  TRAITEMENTS - AMM  

FDA Approves Darolutamide for Non-metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer [ESMO] 

Approval is based on evidence from the ARAMIS study.

  TRAITEMENTS - ÉCONOMIE  


Advanced ovarian cancer drug gets initial ‘no’ for NHS in England [Cancer Research UK] 
In making its provisional decision on rucaparib (Rubraca), the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) cited a lack of evidence over the treatment’s impact on survival.

Canada Finalizes Amendments to Drug Pricing Regulations [RAPS] 
The final amendments to Canada’s Patented Medicines Regulations crack down on excessive prices by building on the federal drug price regulator’s controls to make patented drugs more affordable. The move will have a ripple effect across other countries and has already been met with mixed reactions.

  TRAITEMENTS - CHIRURGIE  

Bowel preparation not needed before colon surgery, study says [UPI] 

Researchers have found there is no difference in post-surgical infection rates when a patient performs pre-surgical bowel preparation compared to when they don't, according to research published Thursday in The Lancet.

When Surgical Innovation Kills [The Cancer Letter] 

Over the past six years, The Cancer Letter has been investigating the hidden hazards in minimally invasive surgery, finding that in some cases, machines and surgical techniques that inadvertently spread cancer cells go into routine use without anyone bothering to ask life and death questions.

  IMMUNOTHÉRAPIES  

Pursuit of tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte immunotherapy speeds up [Nature Biotechnology] 

Mounting evidence of efficacy in metastatic breast cancer and other epithelial tumors is driving clinical and commercial investment in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes.

Vascular regulation of antitumor immunity [Science] 

The ongoing trial that aims to test the role of adding losartan—a safe, inexpensive, and widely prescribed antihypertensive ASI shown to decompress tumor blood vessels—to chemo-radiation and PD1 antibody therapy will reveal the potential of this approach in improving the treatment outcome in patients with PDAC.

  IMMUNOTHÉRAPIES - AMM  

FDA Approves Pembrolizumab for Advanced Oesophageal Squamous Cell Cancer [ESMO] 

FDA also approved a new use for the PD-L1 IHC 22C3 pharmDx kit as a companion diagnostic.

  IMMUNOTHÉRAPIES - CAR-T, THÉRAPIES CELLULAIRES, …  

Statement from ASH President Roy Silverstein, MD, on Medicare Coverage for CAR T-Cell Therapy [ASH]
Decision Memo for Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-cell Therapy for Cancers a positive step, but institutions are still not being adequately reimbursed for this therapy.

What is eTCR Cell Therapy and How Does It Work? [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute] 

Unlike CAR T cells, eTCR can target antigens inside tumor cells present in the body when they are given back to the patient. CAR T cells are limited by their ability to mainly recognize antigens that are on the surface of cancer cells — and that is a minority of antigens. eTCRs are still in development and haven’t been approved for use outside clinical trials.

  PHARMA  

AstraZeneca rockets toward Tagrisso sales target with another survival win [Fierce Pharma]
That overall survival win could be a crucial stat for oncologists deciding which drug to pick. And thanks to the initial round of Flaura data, Tagrisso (osimertinib) is already steamrolling.

  PHARMA - PARTENARIATS  

Faulty manufacturing trips up Nektar's Bristol-partnered cancer drug in crucial trial [Fierce Pharma]
Nektar CEO Howard Robin went to great lengths to explain why response rates dropped in the second stage of a clinical trial testing NKTR-214 (bempegaldesleukin) in tandem with Bristol's Opdivo. But in a nutshell, some patients received substandard batches of the Nektar drug, he told analysts during a conference call. And unsurprisingly, those bad batches didn't work as well.

  LUTTE CONTRE LES CANCERS - POLITIQUES  

No-deal Brexit could deepen Europe's shortage of medicines - experts [Reuters]
About 45 million packs of medicines are shipped from Britain to the rest of the bloc every month, in trade worth nearly 12 billion pounds in 2016, according to a British parliament report. Experts say some disruption is inevitable if Britain leaves the EU without a deal.

  LUTTE CONTRE LES CANCERS - PUBLICATIONS  


UC faculty members quit Cell Press editorial boards over impasse with publisher [Science]
Some of the University of California’s (UC’s) most prominent scientists have announced they will resign from editorial boards of Cell Press to protest the continuing impasse between its owner, publishing giant Elsevier, and UC over subscription costs and open access to articles. Those departing include Jennifer Doudna, co-inventor of the CRISPR-Cas9 gene-editing technology, and Elizabeth Blackburn, co-recipient of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

  LUTTE CONTRE LES CANCERS - COMMUNICATION  

'War on cancer' metaphors may do harm, research shows [The Guardian]
Hauser said war metaphors were so ingrained in cancer language that it would be difficult to do away with them. But he called on cancer charities, those in the media, and others to be more aware that the language may not be helpful.

  LUTTE CONTRE LES CANCERS - CONTROVERSES  

Learning from suramin: A case study of NCI’s much-hyped cancer drug that crashed and burned—35 years ago [The Cancer Letter]
I contend that the story surrounding the development of this drug is far more nuanced than most are aware of. I know, because I was responsible for much of it.